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Emollients


The emollient’s irritation profile (those with low molecular weight are more irritating than the ones with high molecular weight)
The characteristics of spreadability (in order to get the right feel on the skin, use combinations of low, medium and high spreading emollients). Remember that emollients with low molecular weight or viscosity tend to spread quickly on the skin and feel less greasy and lighter)
The stability, especially in formulations that contain reducing or oxidizing agents
The impact on foam, which is very important in formulations of shampoo or body wash; remember that micelles are formed when using low molecular weight emollients
The polarity when the formulator tries to solubilize sunscreens

Alphabetical List of Emollients Chemical Types

Esters: They are the most common emollients in the market and result from the reaction of polyols or alcohols with acids. Examples are the triglyceride based oils (natural emollients) that result from reacting glycerin with fatty acids.
Ethers: They are compounds that contain oxygen atoms that are connected to two aryl or alkyl groups. Examples include ethoxyethane, methoxyethane, and phenoxybenzene.
Fatty acids: They are monocarboxylic acids with a chain length that is bigger than seven carbons. Some examples are behenic acid, lauric, myristic, and oleic.
Fatty alcohols: They are organic compounds that attach a hydroxyl group to a carbon that can be branched, saturated or unsaturated. Their chain length is greater than seven carbons. The common fatty alcohols used in formulations are behenyl alcohols, cetyl, isostearyl, oleyl, and stearyl.
Hydrocarbons: They are carbon structures that only carry carbon and hydrogen groups. Some examples are mineral oils, isododecane, isohexadecane, ozokerite, petrolateum, and polyethylene.
Silicon: They are linear or cyclic polymers that have silicone/oxygen monomers. Polymers are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. Examples include dimethicone, cyclopentasiloxane, and dimethicone crosspolymer.
Polymeric:
Polyquaterniums
List of the Best Emollients for Cosmetics

Natural emollients: cocoa and shea butter, coconut, jojoba, castor, sunflower, palm, olive oils, squalane, candelilla, and beeswax
Volatile emollients: Isododecane, cyclopentasiloxane, and trisiloxane
Emollients for light skin feel: cyclopentasiloxane, hydrogenated polyisobutene, and dicaprylyl ether
Emollients for medium skin feel: diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate, hydrogenation polyisobutene, and dimethicone
Emollients for cushion: pentaerythritol tetraoctanoate and isocetyl stearoyl stearate
Emollients that can be used for emollient face cream: propylene glycol isostearate, isopropyl isostearate, squalene, and petrolatum
Emollients for solubilizing crystalline actives: propylene glycol dibenzoate, phenyl ethyl benzoate, butylphthalimide isopropylphthalimide, and dipropylene glycol dibenzoate

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